Designed by James B. Longacre and introduced in 1859, the Indian Head cent depicts Liberty wearing an Indian headdress and not an actual Native American. The reverse of the 1859 first-year Indian Head featured the inscription one cent surrounded by a laurel wreath, which in 1860 was changed to an oak wreath topped by a small shield. From 1859-1864, Indian Head cents were struck in an 88% copper and 12% nickel alloy, which gave them a pale appearance and the nickname “white cents.” Copper-nickel Indian Head cents of 1859-1864 were hoarded during the Civil War and were replaced in circulation by privately-issued bronze tokens. So the composition of Indian Head cents was changed to bronze during 1864 and the issuance of private tokens was made illegal. A slightly sharper Indian portrait was created near the end of 1864 and included designer James B. Longacre’s initial L on the lower ribbon behind the neck. Indian Heads were struck in bronze through the end of the series in 1909.